Engine Cycles Thermodynamic Analysis. AIR STANDARD CYCLES Air as a perfect gas All processes ideal and reversible Mass same throughout Constant Specific Heat 1. Dual Cycle The Efficiency is given by We can use the same expression as before to obtain the mep. PDCA Cycle, download and create aggressive presentations in 'Process Diagrams' theme. Enjoy this fabulous template, made in a flat design style. It is created for presentations dedicated to PDCA cycle, which means: plan, do, check, and act. It will be a great choice to visualize your work strategies and unique concepts.
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Sawer is a vintage modelling synthesizer, that cuts through the mix to deliver precisely articulated and punchy sounds. Image-Line Sawer v1.2.5 (WIN/MAC) download links are externally hosted on Extabit, Rapidshare, Rapidgator, Netload, Uploaded and Image-Line Sawer v1.2.5 (WIN/MAC) also available directly on Torrent Sources. Sawer is a vintage modelling synthesizer, that cuts through the mix to deliver precisely articulated and punchy sounds. Meticulous designed Filters and Envelopes Sawer pays homage to the envelopes and filters of a rare 1980's Soviet analog synthesizer, Polivoks.
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Chapter 5 internal_combustion_engine • 1. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE • INTRODUCTION What is IC Engine? An internal combustion engine is a thermal system (power plant) that converts heat obtained from chemical energy sources (gasoline, natural gas) into mechanical work.
Where are IC Engines Used? IC engines are used as the propulsion systems for land transport vehicles such as automobiles (cars, etc.), marine vehicles (boats, etc.) and small airplanes. IC engines are also used in portable electrical generators and as prime mover in grass cutting machine, etc. 2 • 3 INTRODUCTION Basic Components of IC Engines • Cylinder, piston, inlet valve and exhaust valve. • Piston moves from the top dead center (TDC) to the bottom dead center (BDC).
• Clearance volume, Vc is a spacing between the top of the piston and the valve’s heads when the piston is at the end of the delivery stroke. • Swept volume or displacement volume, Vs is the volume between TDC and BDC. • ENGINE CLASSIFICATION 4 Reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines are classified into two general categories, depending on how the combustion process in the cylinder is initiated, i.e.: a) Spark-ignition (SI) engines; b) Compression-ignition (CI) engines.
Description of SI Engines • Run on liquid fuel such as gasoline or petrol, which is mixed with air. • The air-fuel mixture enters the cylinder and is compressed to a highest pressure and temperature. • ENGINE CLASSIFICATION 5 Description of SI Engines • A spark from a spark-plug ignites the combustible air- fuel mixture. /get-the-worlds-1-speech-recognition-software-for-mac/.
• It burns and combustion gases are produced. • The high pressure of the gases pushes the piston downwards, producing a power stroke of the piston. • The crankshaft transforms the reciprocating motion into rotational motion (rpm), which is carried by gears and drive shaft systems to the wheels, causing the vehicle to move. • ENGINE CLASSIFICATION 6 Description of CI Engines Run on diesel liquid fuel. • The fresh atmospheric air enters the cylinder in which it is compressed to about 1/22 of its original volume, causing its temperature to raise to about 540 oC or higher. • Diesel fuel is then injected into the compressed air. • The heat of compression of the air causes the diesel to burn.
• ENGINE CLASSIFICATION 7 Description of CI Engines • Thus producing high temperature combustion gases. • The combustion gases pushes the piston downward during the power stroke of the piston. • As in the SI engines, the reciprocating motion is transformed into rotational motion. IN BOTH ENGINES, THE COMBUSTION GASES ARE EVENTUALLY EXHAUSTED OUT OF THE CYLINDER SO THAT FRESH-AIR MIXTURE CAN BE INDUCED INTO THE CYLINDER TO CONTINUE THE THERMODYNAMICS CYCLES – therefore working on an open cycle is the characteristics of all internal combustion engines since the working fluid does not undergo a complete thermodynamic cycle. • PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 8 Compression Ratio, rv Compression ratio = Maximum volume Minimum volume Note: compression ratio is volume ratio and it is not a pressure ratio.
Inlet valve (air) • PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 9 Mean Effective Pressure, MEP • Mean effective pressure (MEP) is a conceptual/fictitious pressure. • If it acted on the piston during the entire power stroke, would produce the same amount of net work as that produced during the actual cycle. • PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 10 Mean Effective Pressure • PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 11 Mean Effective Pressure • CLASSIFICATION BY CYCLES 12 Reciprocating internal combustion engines operate either on two- stroke or four-stroke cycle. Four-stroke Cycle • Most automotive engines operate on a 4-stroke cycle. • Every fourth piston stroke is the power stroke.